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Tuesday, April 13, 2010

Twitter Advertising Equals "Promoted Tweets"

(Excerpt from Mashable, 4/13/10)

Twitter is going to launch its much-anticipated advertising platform on Tuesday, one day before its first-ever developers conference. The ad platform is called “Promoted Tweets” and will start rolling out Tuesday afternoon, beginning with promoted tweets within Twitter Search results.

According to AdAge and The New York Times, the platform will allow businesses to insert themselves into the Twitter stream in order to rise above the noise. It will start with search results, but later on will enter both streams and third-party apps such as TweetDeck and Tweetie (acquired by Twitter last week). Only one ad will be displayed at a time.

Initial customers of the platform include Virgin America, Bravo, and Starbucks. Advertisers will bid on keywords based on a CPM basis initially, but later on Twitter intends to launch a “resonance score” metric that will judge how much reach and impact individual sponsored tweets have, based on favorites, retweets, and views.

In a lot of ways, it’s like Digg Ads, the social media company’s successful advertising model. Both use user interaction with ads in order to determine the price and longevity of specific ads.

The rollout will begin with search and should expand at the end of 2010, depending on how users react to the Promoted Tweets platform.

Friday, March 19, 2010

Top 10 Social Media Efforts for B2B Marketers

Excerpt from Mashable: The B2B Marketing series is supported by the MarketingProfs B2B Forum, where you’ll learn the ins-and-outs of social media as part of your overall B2B marketing mix. *Additional reporting by Tamar Weinberg)

When we write about how companies or individuals are using social media in their marketing strategies, it’s usually in the context of a business to consumer relationship. However, business-to-business (B2B) marketing is really getting a boost from social media as well. According to a recent study, 60% of B2B marketers plan to increase social media marketing spending this year.
As we discussed earlier this week in the context of
PR professionals and social media, even non-B2B-centric services like Twitter and Facebook can still offer great opportunities for B2B shops. Sometimes, the approach is the same as it would be in non-B2B marketing, sometimes it can be very different.

Figuring out how to best implement and harness social media in the course of B2B marketing can be difficult but we’ve put together ten tips to help get you on the right track!

1. Use Twitter Effectively
This may seem like a no-brainer, but plenty of businesses and even B2B marketers aren’t on Twitter. Get an account on Twitter and start engaging. While having profiles on other social media platforms like Facebook and LinkedIn can be equally important, Twitter remains one of the best ways to find and engage with others.

How do you do that? Start by searching for phrases relevant to your business and by monitoring those searches regularly. Look at what people are saying and join in the conversation. If people aren’t necessarily looking for your business offerings right away, start joining other conversations of interest. The more you build bridges, the more likely you are to be noticed.
Second, use hashtags. The
#B2B hashtag, for example, will connect you with several other like-minded businesses who are also trying to leverage Twitter to build an online presence. Don’t overdo it, though. There are some people #who #tweet #like #this.

We’ll discuss this in the next point, but consider Twitter to be an informal medium. With social media, businesses can (and should) be human again. That’s why it’s safe to use Twitter not just for pure self promotion but to build a meaningful relationships with those who you are likely to do business with you in the future. If you feel comfortable using your business Twitter feed to talk about what makes you tick (versus purely promoting your business), you might be pleasantly surprised to see that your audience might very well be receptive to that messaging.
What’s great about Twitter, especially from a B2B perspective, is that you can follow just about everyone. Take advantage of the opportunity to follow your industry influencers, connect with potential customers, and keep a heads up on the competition.

A great example of Twitter usage from a B2B perspective is @salesforce. Salesforce has used its Twitter feed to share relevant news, to empower current customers, and to offer customer support.

2. Figure Out Your ‘Social Voice’
Social media works best when it is personal and authentic, and thus, it’s important to make sure that the way you communicate when using social media tools comes from a personal and authentic place.

Kevin Dugan, the Director of Social Marketing for Empower MediaMarketing recently wrote a blog post about finding your social voice. I spoke with Dugan about establishing a social voice, and he had this to say:

“It is critical that brands understand a social voice is different from brand voice. Social voice reinforces the brand voice indirectly. Social voice doesn’t follow communication guidelines or identity standards. That’s because a social voice equates to a person. A brand voice is anonymous while a social voice can be found on Google. They must also have an understanding of the brand and a passion for it.”

Social networks are now helping to put the “human” back in businesses again. The traditional messaging of yore has been replaced by businesses who actually appear to show that they care about their customers. With a social voice, informal is perfectly acceptable. Having a social voice, as opposed to just a generic “brand voice,” is an important step when connecting with potential customers. Prospective customers want to connect with businesses who think just like them.
Just because your clients are other businesses doesn’t mean that the “social” aspect of social media needs to disappear.

3. Take Advantage of Opportunities on LinkedIn
LinkedIn is continuing to get bigger and bigger — and it continues to be a great resource for businesses and employees to connect with one another.

One of the best things about LinkedIn is the Shared Connections feature. This feature makes it possible to find people — like potential clients — and then see what connections you have in common. Shared Connections then makes getting a virtual introduction that much easier.
Building up a strong LinkedIn network and being willing to introduce others (in good faith, of course — always use your best judgment) can also increase what opportunities you can get in the future.

B2B marketing is often built through trust and word of mouth. Having a shared connection is a great way to start establishing some of that trust from the very beginning.

LinkedIn also has a community of active participants. LinkedIn Answers serves as a knowledge base where business representatives can establish authority and expertise by participating in the ongoing discussions. LinkedIn Groups is an opportunity for business professionals to interact with other topics relevant to his/her interests. One business
successfully used LinkedIn Groups as a way to build business leads. This business opted to engage in relevant industry discussion and offered business services when requests were made, thereby bringing in a highly targeted business lead. Actively participating in LinkedIn is often one of the best ways to not only help people out, but also to make a connection for your service and even generate leads.

Answering questions across LinkedIn Answers and LinkedIn Groups doesn’t mean to simply put out the marketing blurb, but to really engage and offer feedback and solutions. Again, social media is most effective when it is genuine.

4. Start a Blog
Social media provides the opportunity for companies to promote themselves but also to welcome commentary from a community of peers. By starting a blog, you give your readers an opportunity to see you with your social voice outside the typical corporate website’s newsroom. Blogs become platforms where you can announce new product releases, share personal company stories, answer any specific questions from your customers, and empower customers to achieve success with your products and service offerings. Blogging can also establish business professionals as thought leaders in their field, thereby aiding with client acquisition.

Blogs can build up qualified prospects through
search engine rankings too. Be sure to update your blog regularly with valuable content and follow up with the comments written on each individual post.

5. Monitor Your Industry
Social media means that content is being posted everywhere, and businesses have a unique opportunity to gather intelligence to make well-educated and informed business decisions.
Google Alerts is a great tool to keep up with what’s happening in relation to your company, your industry and your competitors. You can get updates via e-mail or in RSS (and even in real-time) about new search results or news stories for a certain query or topic.

Further, free tools like
Social Mention and YackTrack will monitor the social sphere for other mentions of your business on social sites, especially. BackType will take that a step further and monitor phrases in comments on blog posts. All of these aforementioned services can be emailed to you in a daily digest format which your team can evaluate to find opportunities.

If you don’t already have alerts set up on these services for your company name, do it now. Also set
up a more generic alert for your industry as a whole to see what people are talking about. If you want to see what your competition or other big industry players are doing, add those to the mix as well.

Monitoring can also be useful because you can then highlight the big stories on your own social media channels like
Facebook, Twitter, Google Buzz, etc.

6. Be Consistent and Don’t Be Afraid to Follow Up
While you don’t want to be creepy (see below), it’s important to not let potential opportunities slip by when using social media. If you’ve answered someone’s question on LinkedIn or on Twitter, don’t be afraid to reach back out to that person to ask if they have any follow-up questions or if you can send them more information. There’s an abundance of opportunity to strengthen a business relationship but it starts by initiating and then making sure that your business is fresh in your prospects’ minds.

Staying engaged and staying communicative is really important. Social media is not about setting it and forgetting it. It’s about being social, so don’t be afraid to reach out and check back in with potential leads you meet using social media. Similarly, don’t be afraid to direct message your followers on Twitter when an opportunity presents itself. They followed you because they want to hear from you. Use that opportunity to your advantage but don’t overdo it. Auto-DMs are a no-no.

If you’re going to blog, don’t leave that blog stagnant. Provide valuable content on a regular basis. Give employees of your company an opportunity to help build your brand. You can get a lot of great blog content by involving many company employees in the process. Similarly, get many employees of your company to utilize the social networks and to be continually responsive to customer inquiries. Remember, the more visible you are on the social networks, the more likely you are to be remembered when another business actually needs to utilize your services.

7. Leverage Your Analytics for Business Metric Measurement
After you’re involved enough in the social space, you’ll likely see tweets, retweets, traffic, and social network links that point to various parts of your company website. Take a look at your website analytics and start seeing where you’re making a difference, especially as it relates to
ROI measurement. Don’t lose sight of your business metrics and start considering practical social media measurement to assess clickthroughs, popularity of links, and other important metrics.

As part of measurement, consider using
URL shorteners. Not only do they make links more manageable (and limit the number of characters in a Tweet or Facebook message), they also can be a great way to track data as many URL shorteners provide valuable statistics about the performance of each individual shortened URL. Monitor this data throughout the process with your main website analytics package to see if your message attached to the shortened URL resulted in conversions.

When looking at conversion trends or successful tools in building leads with social media, reviewing analytics data is crucial. It gives you insight into content that performs very well in the social space but also through other marketing techniques, such as search engine optimization. Use the data as an opportunity to improve your content or your social media/search marketing efforts.

8. Find and Follow Industry Influencers
B2B social media marketing is often about connecting with the right people and about building relationships. Social media makes both of these actions simple and painless. Being aware of who the influencers in your industry are and then following them, whether it’s on Twitter, Facebook or their own blogs, is the first step to building a connection with those influencers. With a genuine relationship, these influencers may be able to help you make your mark in the social media marketplace. This is especially true of influencers who may already have your target audience at their disposal.

This doesn’t mean you need to retweet every tweet or share every blog post on Facebook, but it does mean that you should be aware of who the movers and shakers are. By following them and then reaching out when appropriate or just to get to know them further, you have a much better shot at getting some attention.

Even if you’re not necessarily connecting to influencers, social media affords the opportunity to connect with other people in your industry and your customers. Use the various social media platforms as an opportunity to connect with these industry colleagues and peers and build upon each other. Consider celebrating your colleagues’ or customers’ success. Make it known that you’re here to help them — not just yourself. Repeat this process with anyone of interest and you’re bound to attract eyeballs.

9. Use Social Media for Giveaways and Promotions
Sometimes, the hardest part of social media is sticking out from the sea of other users. Giveaways and promotions are a great way to help differentiate yourself and your business. Using Twitter, LinkedIn and Facebook, you can target your desired customer base and then let them know (if appropriate) about different promotions or giveaways related to your product. If you offer a service, consider giving a free year to a loyal customer. If you manufacture products, give some away.

Offer a coupon on your company’s Facebook Page and pair it with a lead-generation form for future contact. Let people know on Twitter about specials or contests that are going on and follow-up with those that show an interest. Perhaps you can have a retweet contest where you can monitor responses or host some trivia on your Facebook Page. You can also open an online survey to get feedback about your offerings and reward participants. The possibilities are endless. Creativity in this capacity breeds success.

Companies like
Wildfire make it really easy to build these sorts of promotions directly inside your own social media channels.

10. Don’t Be Creepy
If you use social media like a keyword searching robot, you are going to come across as creepy and turn off potential clients. Don’t be creepy.
Use best judgment and common sense when approaching people using social networks. If you wouldn’t want to be approached the way you are approaching another user, don’t use that approach. It’s as simple as that.
Social media etiquette isn’t much different than real life relationships, so what won’t work in “real life” probably won’t work online.

Respecting boundaries doesn’t mean you can’t still answer questions, engage and follow-up with potential leads, it just means that if it’s clear that the other party isn’t interested, or more importantly, if the context of their communication really doesn’t involve or seek out input from your company, don’t do it.

Context is really important in social media and it is something that is very, very easy to overlook. While we think that using keywords and Google Alerts are good methods for keeping atop of your field, that doesn’t mean you can automate your responses or just go into autopilot based on those alerts.

Monday, March 15, 2010

It's All In The Way You Say It ...

A blind boy sat on the steps of a building with a hat by his feet. He held up a sign which said: "I am blind, please help." There were only a few coins in the hat.

A man was walking by. He took a few coins from his pocket and dropped them into the hat. He then took the sign, turned it around, and wrote some words. He put the sign back so that everyone who walked by would see the new words.

Soon the hat began to fill up. A lot more people were giving money to the blind boy. That afternoon the man who had changed the sign came to see how things were. The boy recognized his footsteps and asked, "Were you the one who changed my sign this morning? What did you write?"

The man said, "I only wrote the truth. I said what you said but in a different way." I wrote: "Today is a beautiful day but I cannot see it."

Both signs told people that the boy was blind. But the first sign simply said the boy was blind. The second sign told people that they were so lucky that they were not blind. Should we be surprised that the second sign was more effective?

Moral of the Story: Be thankful for what you have. Be creative. Be innovative. Think differently and positively.

~Unknown (Rec'd in email from the Prez's Dad!)

Thursday, March 4, 2010

Cash-For-Clunkers Rebates For Appliances

(Excerpt from RST, 3/4/10)

Cash-for-Clunkers Rebates Offered on New Appliances

Three dozen states are launching programs in March and April to distribute almost $300 million in rebates to consumers buying energy-efficient appliances.

The federally funded programs, similar to the cash-for-clunkers auto rebate program last year, are intended to improve energy efficiency and stimulate the economy. Rebates differ by state and appliance.

Eight states launched programs in February, including New York, which offered $50 to $75 rebates on refrigerators, washers and freezers. On opening weekend, "There were people waiting outside every store to get started," said Doug Moore, president of appliances for Sears, which opened early to meet demand.

New York's $18.7 million program was set to expire at the end of February but was extended because millions remained. "It's been a boon to consumers and retailers," said Francis Murray, CEO of the New York State Energy and Research Development Authority.

Michigan launched its program Feb. 10. It expects it'll take four months to distribute the $9 million in rebates, said Stephanie Epps, appliance analyst for the Michigan Bureau of Energy Systems. "The weak economy has a lot to do with it," Epps said.

Some states started programs earlier. Each state sets the rules and dates of their programs. Oregon and Kansas require applicants to be low income. Alaska has reserved rebates for people with disabilities.

To qualify for rebates, consumers must buy Energy Star appliances, which meet energy standards set by the federal government and are up to 30% more efficient than standard models, Murray said.

Many states offer rebates for refrigerators, washing machines, dishwashers and water heaters, Moore says. Some states are more restrictive. Many offer extra rebates if consumers recycle old appliances. Rebates are largely first come, first served. In Michigan, consumers can reserve rebates, then buy and apply, Epps said.

The Department of Energy provides information on each state's program at this site.(Source: USA Today, 02/23/10)

Tuesday, February 23, 2010

Ways Spending Habits Have Transformed

(Excerpt from RST, 2/23/10)

Some Changes, It Seems, May Be Permanent

It's a question that has preoccupied marketers ever since the economy went haywire: Will people revert to their free-spending ways once the economy recovers, or has their behavior been permanently transformed?

Some observers insist that people's pre-recession acquisitiveness was rooted in basic human impulses and will largely reassert itself. Others say the long spending spree was an aberration and that human nature doesn't fate us to be obsessive shoppers. A report released late last month by Context-Based Research Group and ad agency Carton Donofrio Partners makes the case that the downturn has indeed wrought a lasting shift in consumers' thinking and not just a transitory change in their bank balances.

Titled "Coming of Age in the Great Recession," the report draws on quantitative survey work fielded last fall as a follow-up to ethnographic research conducted in the aftermath of autumn 2008's financial meltdown. So far, attitudinal changes noted in the earlier study (issued under the title "Grounding the American Dream") have not gone away. Most broadly, the new report says 83 percent of respondents subscribed to the statement, "I have made permanent changes to how I spend and save." Moreover, the survey finds them saying good riddance to their old understanding of the "American Dream" and the buying it entailed: 78 percent endorsed the statement, "The American Dream started as 'the land of opportunity' but became merely the land of opportunity to buy."

Seeing benefit in the downturn
And they haven't necessarily been dragged kicking and screaming to this new consciousness. Rather, a significant number of respondents sound a note of relief that the downturn has rescued them from an unsatisfying cycle of getting and spending. Forty-three percent agreed with the statement, "I feel that my life has been positively affected by the economic changes." That, as much as anything, gives reason to think the changes in behavior will persist even after the economy has recovered.

And it's noteworthy that such thinking isn't confined to people whose finances have been slammed by the recession. "What was interesting to my colleagues and me was that the survey showed people who weren't impacted -- i.e., hadn't experienced job loss, etc. -- were acting as if they were directly affected," says Robbie Blinkoff, principal anthropologist and co-founder of Context-Based Research Group, which brings the discipline of "consumer anthropologists" to the study of consumer behavior.

"Those who were involuntary thrown into dire situations changed quickly, but out of necessity," says Blinkoff. "I'd say 50 percent of the change with this group was voluntary, since the trigger that activated their change wasn't intentional, but the subsequent behavior modifications were by choice. For those who weren't directly impacted, the change is 100 percent voluntary. Once they accepted what was happening to friends and family members, they altered their lifestyle. The great recession prompted us to examine how we live our lives."

Buying and self-image
That element of self-awareness is reflected in one of the survey's findings. Seventy-six percent of the respondents agreed that they've "come to a deeper understanding of how my buying behavior shapes my self-image." And this "deeper understanding" has expressed itself partly in a lower level of expenditure, as 88 percent said they've "taken steps to spend less this year.

"It's not just a matter of spending less, though. The report also indicates people are thinking in a different way about the outlays they continue to make. In that regard, a landslide 93 percent agreed, "I have become more strategic in how I buy things, thinking more about how they fit into my life." Note the latter phrase there, about how purchases "fit into my life." This is plainly more than a matter of getting the most bang for one's buck in a time of straitened resources.

But do we tend to think everyone else was running around overspending in the bad old days -- encouraged by overeager lenders -- while we ourselves were behaving sensibly? Blinkoff thinks not. "The average person is taking part of the blame," he says. "Without a doubt there was a societal problem with the banks and mortgage companies, but people are taking personal responsibility. We're waking up and wondering why we need two refrigerators.

Not giving up 'treats'
That's not to say consumers feel they're now enduring Spartan lives of self-denial: 90 percent agreed that "Regardless of how I spend and save, I still look for ways to give myself and others small treats along the way." Says Blinkoff, "Cutting back didn't have to mean cutting out fun and not enjoying your life. Throughout our research we saw that people were finding ways to experience joy despite the recession. Now that the ice is breaking, we're seeing people shop a bit more, and we expect this trend to continue as the economy gains strength." It won't be a return to the heedless, credit-funded shopping of the pre-recession days, though. "Consumers will spend a little more and treat themselves, but with more thoughtful purchases -- attainable luxuries as opposed to extreme luxuries, those items grounded in peoples' values," he says.

In this environment, how will consumers react to advertising for things they know they don't need? "I don't think they'll readily be pulling out their wallets," Blinkoff remarks. "If consumers see a product they don't need, they aren't going to make the purchase. For advertisers, this means less differentiating on brand alone and focusing on product attributes. The Oxo line of kitchen gadgets seems to be a brand that resonates with the newly grounded consumer. Consumers are willing to purchase cooking tools that will help them with a hobby and ultimately help provide a shared experience of a meal with family and friends. That purchase has a purpose, a deeper meaning."

The emphasis on deriving satisfaction from time spent with family and friends (as opposed to time spent at the mall) is part of what the report refers to as an effort "to maintain a healthy balance between our consumer and non-consumer sense of selves." "Our research shows a significant percentage of respondents are committed to spending more time with friends and family," says Blinkoff. And, when asked specifically whether this might be an instance of people giving a pollster the socially acceptable response, he insists that's not what's going on here. "Our findings indicate that this is more than a knee-jerk reaction or the 'correct' answer," he says. "For example, Super Bowl XLIV was the most-watched television program of all time. In my opinion, that's proof people are getting together. It's less about a football game and more about time with friends and family."

From a 'me' to a 'we' economy
Of course, a pullback from conspicuous consumption doesn't mean an end to the age-old practice of "keeping up with the Joneses." Rather, the display of one's status has evolved in a way Blinkoff sees as durable. "We're seeing people utilize social currency and a relational economy," he says. "We are moving from a 'me' to a 'we' economy. It's not about transactions but rather what you can do for yourself and others."

As a tangible example, he points to Americans' response to the Haiti earthquake. "I think the overwhelming response to this tragedy connects to the fact people are trying to give more of themselves," he says. "Obviously we aren't going to stop buying stuff completely, but we're moving away from identifying ourselves with top-of-the-line automobiles and $3,000 handbags."

(Source: Adweek, 02/22/10)

Monday, February 15, 2010

Sponsorship Spending Expected to Bounce Back in 2010

(Excerpt from RST, 2/15/10)


In 2010, things are looking up for sponsorships.

Sponsorship spending by North American companies is expected to grow 3.4% to $17.08 billion, according to the IEG Sponsorship Report.

But as the numbers came in from 2009, for the first time, these companies spent less on sponsorships with expenditures declining 0.6% to $16.51 billion, compared to $16.6 billion in 2008.

“Those unprecedented numbers reflect a marketplace that never recovered from the economy’s free fall towards the end of ’08,” William Chipps, IEG SR’s senior editor, said.

And for some companies that are inexperienced in using sponsorships and never really had a strategy behind it, see it as an expendable item and have cut those sponsorships,” he said.

In addition, two industries that play a large role in sponsorship spending—automotive and financial—have drastically cut spending in the wake of government bailouts and other financial problems.

“These industries have pulled back after haven taken major hits over last couple of years,” Chipps said. “And they have historically been two of the most active sponsorship categories.”

Sports, the largest sponsorship category, saw spending decline 1% from $11.4 billion in ’08 to $11.28 billion in ’09. Two of the other six major property sectors also suffered a drop in revenue: causes slipped a mere 0.3% from $1.52 billion to $1.51 billion, while arts spending fell 0.8% from $848 million to $820 million.

Other sectors managed gains. Spending on entertainment tours and attractions rose 0.8% from $1.63 billion to $1.64 billion; spending on festivals, fairs and annual events increased 0.4% from $753 million to $756 million; and spending on associations and membership organizations rose 2.9% from $482 million to $496 million.

Each of the six sectors continue to earn the same share of the sponsorship pie as they did in ’08, with sports taking 68% of the dollars, followed by entertainment tours and attractions at 10%.

Firms are also looking more closely at return on investment.

“Companies are increasingly asking themselves, ‘are we generating ROI or a return on objective?” Chipps said.

Outside North America, the outlook improves.

Global sponsorship expenditures reached $44 billion in ’09, a 2.1% increase from the $43.1 billion spent in ’08.

Minus activity by U.S. and Canadian companies, spending by the rest of the world hit $27.5 billion in ’09, a 3.8% rise over $26.5 billion in ’08.

For 2010, IEG SR projects 4.5% growth in worldwide sponsorship to $46 billion. The largest gains will come from Africa and South America, in part due to activity and interest surrounding South Africa’s hosting the 2010 FIFA World Cup and a developing sponsorship marketplace in countries such as Argentina and Brazil, the latter of which will host both the 2014 World Cup and 2016 Olympic Games.

Countries based in Central and South America will increase spending by 5.7% to $3.7 billion, while companies from all other countries, including those on the African continent, will grow their spends by the same 5.7% proportion to $2.1 billion.

European companies will boost spending 5% to $12.7 billion and those based in the Asia Pacific region will see a 4% rise to $10.4 billion, IEG said.

Source: Promo Magazine, 01/28/2010

Thursday, February 11, 2010

Marketing to Social Followers

(Excerpt from emarketer, January 22, 2010)

What Social Followers Want
Deals aren’t the only thing

Brand marketers want consumers to follow them to build buzz and engagement, but social media users often desire something in return. What they’ve come to expect is a good deal, but many consumers—including the most active users of social sites—are also interested in deeper engagement.

A December 2009 MarketingSherpa survey indicated that learning about specials and sales was the top motivation of those who friended or followed a brand online, supporting the results of earlier surveys. But looking for savings was followed closely by learning about new products, features or services.

Users described as “max connectors”—those with at least 500 social connections—were less interested than average in getting deals. Instead, they cared about new products and company culture, demonstrating the deeper engagement expected by social media power users.

An earlier study, by Razorfish, also found that exclusive deals and offers were the primary motivation of US Internet users following brands on Twitter.

Respondents who friended a brand on Facebook or MySpace responded similarly, though they were more likely to become a fan because they were a current customer (32.9%) than were users of Twitter.

Sharing interesting content that users care about, along with the deals and discounts they have come to expect, will both keep them engaged and spur them to pass along marketing messages.